What is ITK?

The acronym ‘ITK’ gets used a lot within the healthcare technology world.

It stands for Interoperability Toolkit, and the official NHS Digital page about ITK can be found at (https://digital.nhs.uk/interoperability-toolkit)

What is ITK?

The Interoperability Toolkit (ITK) is a set of common specifications, frameworks and implementation guides that support interoperability.

It is essentially an umbrella term / brand name.

What isn’t ITK?

ITK is not a specific specification or standard. It is not a ‘badge’ that is issued to system suppliers.

A system with ‘ITK interfaces’ or ‘ITK support’ does not necessarily have the ability to talk to other systems with ‘ITK interfaces’ – it depends completely on which of the ITK specifications or standards the system provider has implemented.

When system providers have developed their product to support ITK specifications and standards, they can go through an accreditation process to have this formally tested and recognised by NHS Digital.

If a system provider tells you that the system supports ‘ITK’ you should ask for precise detail on which elements of ITK they support.

What is ITK accreditation?

Also known as ‘ITK conformance’, a system provider being issued with ITK accreditation means that they have implemented against at least one of the specifications within the ITK collection.

An ITK Conformance certificate is issued to a system provider upon completion of the accreditation process – it means that NHS Digital are satisified that the system meets the requirements in the specification you have chosen to support.

Note: You do not require ITK accreditation in order to start development – it is issued right at the end of the development process.

NHS Digital maintains an online catalogue of suppliers who have been formally accredited as ‘ITK Conformant’ – if the supplier is not in this list, it means they have not been issued with an ITK accreditation by the NHS Digital ITK team.

You will notice that the catalogue specifically lists the Catalogue category and System type against which a system provider has been issued accreditation.

As a purchaser / user of systems this is the most important part of the cataloge – it will tell you exactly which capability a system provider can support.

For example, a supplier listed under the Catalogue category of “Hospital Admission, Discharge and Transfers” can’t necessarily communicate with a system under the category of “NHS 111”.

The cataloge also lists the System Version ID against which an accreditation has been issued. This means that in order for you to make use of the ITK functionality, your system will need to be on that minimum version; it is often the case that all versions after the one listed will continue to support the functionality but you should always ask your the system provider about this.

What is the process for ITK accreditation / conformance?

The ITK team at NHS Digital will guide you through the process, and so you should enage with that team as early in the process as possible. You need to know which of the ITK specifications you would like to develop against, as the requirements can vary significantly, and the exact process may involve different teams and additional business requirements.

You can find more details about initiating contact with the ITK team here: (https://developer.nhs.uk/testcentre/itk-accreditation/)

A a system provider, an overview of the process is:

  1. You identify the ITK specifications against which they would like to develop your software.
  2. You make contact with ITK Accreditation team at NHS Digital to initiate the process.
  3. You download the relevant technical specifications to support the specific technical capability you are building against.

    Most specifications can be found on the TRUD (Terminology and Reference data Update Distribution) portal – you will have to sign up for an account, but this is free.

    You will also need to download the development support tools that are provided to help you with the process.

    You should ask the ITK team for guidance on which specifications and tools you need to use if in doubt.

  4. Once accepted into the process, the ITK team will issue you with a tailored “requirements catalogue” – it will list all of the documented functional and non-functional requirements you need to meet. It will also detail any tests you need to complete as part of the process.

  5. As you develop your product, you should complete the requirements catalogue and try and use the specified tests as a guide for your development. Many leave the compliance parts to the end, and this is guarranteed to be more painful for you!

  6. Once all development is complete, you submit your completed requirements cataloge along with all necessary test evidence that is required.

  7. When the ITK team are satisfed with your submission, they will confirm conformance and issue you with a certificate. This is the point at which you will be added to the online ITK Accreditiation Catalogue.

The NHS, Public Cloud, and N3

This week, NHS Digital have released new guidance around the hosting and off-shoring of NHS and Social Care data.

The guidance on “off-shoring and the use of public cloud” clarifies a couple of important factors:

  • NHS and Social Care data is to be treated as OFFICIAL data which is the lowest of the Governement Security Classifications [(there are only three classifications: OFFICIAL, SECRET, and TOP SECRET). The significance of this is that it means we don’t need to buy NHS-specific hosting any more – OFFICIAL means good enterprise security and compliance with recognised data security standards.
  • Data can be hosted within the UK – European Economic Area (EEA), a country deemed adequate by the European Commission, or in the US where covered by Privacy Shield. This is a significant change from the previous restriction which required data to be kept in England for NHS England remit services, for instance.

All of this is strongly predicated on the fact that appropriate controls, risk assessments, and security measures are applied regardless of where data is processed and stored – the novel part is that this guidance acknowledges that acceptable levels of security can be achieved within the off-shore areas mentioned above.

For the avoidance of doubt, this new guidance does not mean that it is automatically safe to store NHS and Social Care personal data within these wider regions – the same level of design and scrutiny needs to be applied in line with the necessary security principles.

N3 / HSCN applications in public cloud

The above guidance is a massive step forward, and it hopefully signals a new focus from NHS Digital on fulfilling its purpose as a foundation for technology within the NHS, and on remaining a technologically-relevant organisation within the such a fast-paced industry.

The guidance alone isn’t quite enough, though. For many, the knowledge needed to design a public cloud infrastructure with the ability to communicate within the N3 / HSCN networks is a mere myth.

Black Pear, a health software supplier with a focus on interoperability are one of the few who have actually achieved this and Dunmail Hodkinson, CTO, shared some of his top tips on the OpenHealthHub community forum. He kindly agreed that I could collect them together here for easy reference.

The below information is shared in the hope that it will at least help you get started with designing your use of public cloud, and we are grateful to Dunmail and Black Pear for sharing this openly.

It should go without saying that this is by no means an exhaustive set of guidance and that you are completely responsible for your own implementations.

Designing the infrastructure

The design used by Black Pear is relatively simple:

  • AWS DirectConnect (https://aws.amazon.com/directconnect/) is used to securely route traffic from N3/HSCN to the Gateway VPC on AWS. (The Gateway VPC is then effectively a little bubble of N3 running on AWS)

  • Host proxy servers for both inbound and outbound traffic in the Gateway VPC. Choose your favourite software! (Black Pear runs Ubuntu + haproxy/nginx/squid/postfix).

  • Create a second VPC on AWS – this is the Private VPC and must not be routable from the internet

  • The Private VPC is used to host your application servers

  • Finally, VPC peering (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/vpc-peering.html) is configured to route traffic between the Gateway VPC and Private VPCs.

  • Supporting guidance

    AWS have published a helpful set of guidance describing Cloud architectures for UK-OFFICIAL workloads:

    This includes a candidate architecture that can quickly be adapted to NHS requirements. You can try these out on any AWS account…

    N3 Connectivity

    Black Pear uses Redcentric to provide N3 connectivity for their production services on AWS (http://www.redcentricplc.com/services/networks/hscn-connectivity/hscn-public-cloud-connectivity/).

    This is straightforward, but there are some pre-requisites for connecting to N3:

    • Design documentation (the Logical Connection Architecture) is used to show that the connection will be safe, secure and comply with NHS requirements.
  • The Information Governance Toolkit (https://www.igt.hscic.gov.uk/) is used to show that your organisation has a robust information governance framework in place.

  • Once the agreement and necessary documentation was in place, the actual setup of the connection took less than a day.

    Some top tips…

    • Start the IGToolkit and Logical Connection Architecture early. You can then make design decisions that make it easy to meet the requirements.
  • Use the Infrastructure as Code practice, for example AWS CloudFormation (https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/). Use this to build and deploy a development environment that matches the production environment exactly – including network configuration, firewall rules and virtual machine images.

  • Remember that not all AWS services run in all regions (e.g. Kinesis Firehose) and some must be internet connected (e.g. ApiGateway). Check that you’ll be able to use the service when you deploy to production.

  • Ensure you establish contact with the NHS Digital DNS team and help them understand what you are doing – you may need their help to configure some non-standard DNS records (e.g. a CNAME record on N3 DNS servers that points to a CNAME record on internet DNS servers that points to the CNAME record of a private load balancer on AWS DNS servers, that finally resolves to A records describing IP addresses in the Gateway VPC).

  • Links

    Black Pear is a provider of healthcare interoperable clinical applications.

    Redcentric is a managed services provider.

    NHS Digital – NHS and social care data: off-shoring and the use of public cloud services

    Information Governance Tool Kit

    Government Security Classifications

    AWS Guidance on UK-OFFICIAL workloads

    My 2018 event schedule

    I only realised in hindsight that I attended a number of tech events, meetups, training, hackathons etc. during 2017.

    To attempt to be a bit more organised, and in case it’s of interest to others, I’m going to keep a live list of my planned events for 2018 here. Give me a shout if you’re interested in any of them and would like to know more!






    • TBC – MindTheProduct Conference, London


    The Zen of Interoperability

    I was having a discussion with a colleague this week about architectural options for some specific interoperability use cases we are tackling.

    The conversation touched on implementation choice – how much flexibility should there be in how to approach specific interoperability use cases within the NHS?

    I’ve thought about this quite a bit, and struggled with the complexity that “many ways to do the same thing” can introduce. I naturally found myself quoting PEP 20 — The Zen of Python | Python.org.


    There should be one — and preferably only one — obvious way to do it.

    Could this be a reasonable principle for us to take with NHS interoperability?

    I wonder if there is a place for “The Zen of NHS Interoperability” – to define some guiding principles for all of us working hard to make interoperability useful for the NHS.

    Here is a slightly tongue-in-cheek attempt at a “Zen of NHS Interoperability” 🙂

    The Zen of Interoperability

    Elegant is better than messy.
    Explicit is better than implicit.
    Simple is better than complex.
    Complex is better than complicated.
    Open is better than controlled.
    But controlled is better than proprietary.
    Readability counts.
    Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules.
    Although practicality beats purity.
    Errors should never pass silently.
    Unless explicitly silenced.
    In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
    There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious way to do it.
    Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you designed it.
    Now is better than never.
    Although never is often better than *right* now.
    If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea.
    If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea.
    Clear Standards are one honking great idea -- let's have more of those!

    What are ‘dispositions’ in Urgent Care?

    The majority of the content in this post was provided by a colleague.

    In Urgent & Emergency Care, dispositions play a key part in helping us to categorise patients and ensure they get the right response for their clinical need.

    ‘Dispositions’ are defined here: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/disposition.

    It is the third definition we’re interested in here:

    3. the plan for continuing health care of a patient following discharge from a given health care facility.

    My version of this, with the added context of how we use dispositions in NHS urgent & emergency care is:

    A disposition packages the perceived clinical need of a patient in the form of a skill set and a time frame.

    e.g. “Speak to a clinician | within 2 hours”

    We allocate dispositions using information / input data from the patient and our clinical expertise, and are there to help consistently communicate a point-in-time assessment of a patient’s clinical need in terms of what needs to happen next; they are really only ever recommendations.

    Although dispositions are essentially recommendations, some scenarios may have pre-defined dispositions that are considered appropriate.

    For example – specific clinical conditions might require a disposition that denotes a response by an ambulance, or Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as National Quality Requirements (NQRs) might define a maximum amount of time within which a patient should receive a call back from a General Practitioner (GP).

    The decision-making process taken to reach a recommended disposition (skillset and timeframe) will vary between entities too. Different organisations, regions, even clinical IT systems may use different reasoning dependent on specific external factors.

    For example – a local region may have recently experienced a high number of clinical incidents with unwell children, and therefore decide that all children are seen by a specialist paediatric service, regardless of their presenting features.

    E.g. Disposition of “See paediatric specialist | within 2 hours”

    This is still a disposition representing a clinical recommendation – i.e. the recommendation that a child be seen within 2 hours by a paediatric specialist – however the decision on which disposition is appropriate was affected by different factors.

    In all situations disposition are based on a combination of expert opinion, relevant evidence, and situational factors and therefore they are always subject to change and re-evaluation.

    How are dispositions used?

    Once a perceived skillset and timeframe have been “packaged” into a disposition, the response to the patient’s identified need will, and can, vary depending on the availability of services locally, the risk appetite of the responsible organisations or individuals, and the prioritisation within services that are available.

    How does this relate to prioritisation?

    Prioritisation is the next step and can only ever be relative.

    A “package” of information has led to the disposition but other factors will decide which of the patients assigned a similar disposition require priority.

    More external factors come into play here, such as the age of the patient, their specific condition, and any co-morbidities they may have.

    Again, it is ultimately a matter of expert opinion as to which factors have the greatest weighting when deciding priority (although as we do more with data this is likely to be come more evidence-based and less dependent on pure expert opinion).

    All the time expert opinion is a significant part of the decision-making process there will be conflict between different expert perspectives and belief systems.

    NHS Hack Day 17 – Manchester

    A short blog post about NHS Hack Day and why it’s worth attending.

    "NHS Public Data" team

    I have just spent the weekend at NHS Hack Day in Manchester, hosted by the Co-op in their new tech hub The Federation.

    I wrote this blog post with the primary intention of sharing with my colleagues in NHS Digital to hopefully encourage some more people to get involved – but I don’t think there’s anything here that doesn’t apply to everyone.

    It was a brilliant weekend, and there was a super mixture of people there – plenty of healthcare professionals, IT professionals, some senior management types (CIOs / CCIOs), general “techies” (professional, aspiring, and amateur), researchers, and a lawyer.

    "Mobi-Alert" team

    What’s NHS Hack Day like?

    For those who aren’t familiar with NHS Hack Day, it goes something like this:

    The event runs 9-5 Sat and Sun

    Lunch is provided on both days and hot drinks are available throughout.

    Saturday morning is spent using coffee to recover from the work week, chatting with people, and pitching ideas.

    Pitches are 2 minutes each and you can pitch anything from a solid idea to an open-ended question (this time we even had someone who wanted to create a sci-fi story about healthcare in the year 2100).

    Most people are nervous

    Some people only decide to pitch an idea whilst watching the other pitches – the team that won last weekend only decided to pitch after getting confidence from the other pitches.

    After pitching everyone has some time to go and talk to the pitchers, explore the ideas, and gradually teams are formed around the projects. Sometimes ideas are merged together, sometimes they’re split off into smaller projects.

    The rest of Saturday, and most of Sunday is spent working on projects 

    Different people work in different ways; some teams like to stick the headphones on and just chip away at a problem and others will spend a lot of time working through problems interactively. 

    Sometimes people start building software etc. in the first hour, sometimes people don’t build at all.

    On Sunday afternoon teams decide if they would like to present their project to everyone else – and if so submit their projects

    This is completely optional, but it feels good and is encouraged – the community is friendly and rarely does a team not present something.

    "Trendy" team

    At about 15:30 everyone gets together and watches presentations

    Each team gets 3 minutes to present their work, and 2 minutes to answer questions.

    I’m always amazed at what people have managed to prepare – last weekend we had a Fresh Prince rap from one team, and a promotional video from another…

    I had several conversations with people where they were not sure where they were expected to be in terms of progress at various points through the event. Superbly, there is no right answer.

    The presentations are one of the most enjoyable bits for me – and last weekend had me smiling throughout every single presentation. There were so many great ideas, and every team had something interesting to show.

    Teams will present anything from some paper mockups and a bit of narrative through to a fully working product with audience participation – it is dependent on the type of project, the team, and how good people are at getting up on Sundays mornings.


    After presentations, there is a short period of evaluation where either a panel of invited judges, or the community, will vote for the top three projects – and those teams are given some prizes

    We tried a new approach to voting this time where the community was given 3 votes each to vote for the three projects they were most excited by. We trusted the community to not vote for themselves, and to only vote three times – this simply doesn’t need policing.

    People then help put the borrowed space back to how it was found, and head home feeling enthused 🙂 

    The last 30 mins is spent clearing up, saying goodbye, exchanging contact details, plotting world domination, and just generally wrapping up an enjoyable weekend.


    Why should I care?

    If you’re thinking “well I’m sure you all had fun, but does this matter to me?”, here are a few of my thoughts:

    There is absolutely no ‘right skill set’

    In fact I shouldn’t need to explain that diversity always wins and this certainly includes diversity of skills.  The best outputs come from the teams with the most diversity, and there is no buzz quite like building something with a diverse team of techies, healthcare professionals, artists, and users.

    On our team, we were all learners in one way or another so a large amount of our time was spent pairing, learning, explaining, and discovering – this is just as rewarding as having something shiny to present the end of it.

    This type of event is unconstrained thinking at its absolute best

    As an embittered and tiring NHS technology person, I go to these events to recharge my batteries. This kind of community is not subject to the organisational, political, and learned behavioural constraints that many of us are.

    It’s incredibly rare that a pitch is binned because “we’ll never get it through the <insert your favourite bureaucratic restriction here> process” – people are there to busk and solve problems. The concept of a political mandate, or a 4:1 return on investment simply isn’t important here.

    The ideas and outputs from these events are a map for the future

    Maps are so useful – we are all pretty convinced of the benefit of roadmaps, and visions, and Google maps.

    The ideas at these events give us a clue about what is around the corner for NHS technology. Many people at these events are recently qualified healthcare professionals, or are maybe only involved with NHS technology as users and see this as an opportunity to have a voice.

    The things they want, and expect, are clues – to what we should be thinking about, to where we should be going, and to where we’re falling short.

    It helps prove that the centre can engage, listen and help

    Do not read subtext into this – I am not saying “NHS England / NHS Digital never engage with the community”.

    But it should not raise eyebrows at these events when one says that they work for NHS Digital, or NHS England – people are, but shouldn’t be, pleasantly surprised.

    Last weekend I think I counted the number of attendees from NHS England / NHS Digital on one hand – I’d love to see this go onto two hands.

    People are enthused to see us there, and actually we can be really helpful as guides, navigators, and mentors. It encourages innovators just to know that we’ve considered it of value to take time to be there.

    It’s not just about AI and mobile apps – people solve fundamental problems too

    One of my favourite projects from last week: FastPass. A team of seasoned IT support professionals who were determined to sort out the drag of password resets – both for support staff and users. They built a working system for self-service password resets and they intend to take it forward within their local NHS trust.

    My team tackled the challenge of collecting timely feedback from users of NHS services at a scale that would produce enough data to be significant.

    Real problems, not flashy, that could genuinely make stuff better.


    In conclusion

    Next time there’s an NHS Hack Day near you, try and get along – if only for one day.

    If you don’t like it then fair enough.

    But you might do, and you might find it leads to you bringing a better, more energised self back into work the following Monday – and that can only be a good thing for your own organisation, and the NHS.

    Visit http://nhshackday.com/ for more information, or follow @NHSHackDay on Twitter.

    If you are interested, and would like to ask some questions feel free to drop me an email at matt@stibbsy.co.uk or @mattstibbs on Twitter – I’d be really happy to tell you more.


    I recently visited family in Singapore – I’ve been lucky enough to visit several times now and always enjoy spending time there. The benefit of staying with family is that you get to see the place through local eyes – there’s a lot to notice as you walk to the local hawker centre for lunch.

    I’m really interested in Singapore’s civic infrastructure and seem to notice new things every time I visit; there’s normally some technology involved.

    I sometimes find myself asking “How come we don’t just have something like this here?” as if it is just that simple. In reality Singapore has an interesting setup (in many ways) which allows it to make things work that might not back here in the UK. I certainly don’t claim to deeply understand these differences, but I’m interested enough to keep learning about it.

    For my own interest I decided that this time I would note a few things down; I get excited about some of these things but they are not necessarily as ground-breaking as they feel – this is as much for personal reference in the future as I maybe follow their developments. 

    Whilst I was writing this blog post, I noticed this article published on the WSJ which talks about Singapore’s plans to “take the ‘Smart City’ to the next Whole New Level”  –  this is intriguing and exciting having seen first hand the efficient way in which Singapore provides some of its civic services to citizens.

    Driving in Singapore

    From what I understand, Singapore is an incredibly expensive place to drive. For example: on initial registration of a car in Singapore there is a registration fee (tax) of 150% the market value of the car – a car worth $40,000 will cost you an additional $60,000 to register. This is before you even get started – you still have standard running costs / road taxes etc. to keep it running. Once a car is 10 years old, there are additional licences you have to get in order to keep it running – consequently the large majority of cars on the roads in Singapore are less than 10 years old.

    Singapore has one way to pay driving-related charges – payments are facilitated by In-vehicle Units (IU). Any car wishing to use ‘priced roads’ in Singapore must be fitted with an IU (I don’t think I’ve seen a car that doesn’t have one in the windscreen yet…).



    The IU takes a payment card against which it makes charges – generally this uses the EZ-Link stored value card although the more recent units also support NETS (a Singapore cashless payments company which offers more favourable arrangements for Singapore businesses and residents than the international players such as MasterCard / Visa).

    The IU contains a radio transceiver which is activated by all sorts of things. When a device is charged, it simply beeps and the fee is automatically deducted from the payment card.


    Almost every car park around the city uses the IU for parking charges – the IU is read on the way in, and then as you pass through the exit barrier your device is automatically charged (surprisingly parking charges are actually very reasonable).

    As you drive around the city, you notice Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) gantries projecting a bright white line of light onto the road surface – driving through this white line means you will be charged a toll charge, which changes depending on the time of day and level of congestion.


    Driving into your apartment block, your IU device bleeps as the barrier identifies your car and lets you through – no need for a separate remote control or access card.

    We have achieved similar things to this in the UK using Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras – and I’m sure that as ANPR technology becomes more available and cheaper to deploy, we will see it used much more frequently for payment in local car parks, for instance. However IU devices are ubiquitous in Singapore, and one of the things that makes the system so efficient is that ubiquity – it’s the fact that a single ‘standard’ has almost 100% penetration across the whole system that I find interesting.

    Feedback, feedback, feedback, data!

    I’ve always enjoyed giving feedback at passport control in Changi Airport. Two reasons for this:

    • it is run pretty efficiently and rarely takes a long time
    • the officers do this really cool emphatic ‘dance of the stamp’ as they adorn your passport.

    I’ve always tapped the ‘very smiley face’ on the ‘feedback terminal’.


    This time though, it struck me just how many ‘feedback terminals’ there are dotted around the airport…

    Just a few opportunities for giving feedback that I noticed were:

    • After you’ve been through passport control
    • After you’ve used the toilets (feedback is assigned to the operative on duty)
    • After you’ve taken a walk around the Cactus Garden
    • After you’ve purchased something from duty free
    • After you’ve visited the Butterfly Garden
    • After you’ve taken a photo in front of the Photo Garden(?)
    • After you’ve bought refreshments from the Tip Top food stand (curry puffs and kopi are a must)

    Take your time…

    Whilst waiting at a pelican crossing, I noticed these boxes fitted for the crossing control. At first glance I thought it was some kind of payment terminal (I was prepared for the fact that there may be some charging associated with using the crossing – anything is possible), however my sister explained that these Land Transport Authority (LTA) crossing controls are fitted with tech which allows people to request more time to cross the road.

    Those who are eligible are issued with an RFID card that they present to the crossing control when activating it triggering it to remain green for longer.


    I thought this was an ace idea but I did wonder whether this sort of thing would even really work in the UK – we certainly lack the same level of compliance when it comes to crossing roads.

    AXS to services

    We decided we wanted to have a BBQ at the East Coast Beach one evening – for this you have to book a BBQ pitch. As we were walking through a mall, we passed what looked like a cash machine. “Oh, hold on, I’ll just book our BBQ pitch.” Turns out it was an ‘AXS terminal’.

    It seems you can do a whole host of ‘everyday things’ via an AXS terminal, and they are placed all over the city. You can pay fines, pay bills,  buy tickets, access government services, top things up, book BBQs…

    It’s not a completely novel concept – you can, I understand, top up your PAYG phone from some ATM machines in the UK.

    But you can find an AXS machine in most shopping centres, and each machine provides a whole range of services (over 150 apparently) – they are almost as ubiquitous as ATM machines. The system is consistent, it’s providing a standardised platform for providers of services to make transactions available to citizens, and citizens know how to use it to interact with the city.

    Open Flood Data…

    We managed to get caught in the first downpour Singapore had seen for several weeks – and this rainstorm came with conviction. We actually spent over an hour stranded in a cave surround by the “The Ten Courts Of Hell” at Haw Par Villa whilst we waited for the storm to subside.

    Whilst sitting there watching the sky empty itself, my sister said “It hasn’t rained like this for weeks – I wonder if the drains are coping”. She loaded her WeatherLah app and showed me a map of all the storm drains / channels around Singapore, and how full they were. The geek in me loved that I could see the status of the entire drainage network, in a single view, on a smartphone, from inside a cave.

    Again, there’s nothing particularly ground-breaking about water level data being made available – we have this in the UK already via the Environment Agency’s real-time flood monitoring API; but for some reason it felt like I was looking at a ‘system’, as opposed to lots of monitoring stations dotted independently around the place. My mental model of Singapore was that of a single machine and in subsequently reading about the Smart City plans this kind of makes sense.

    Incidentally I asked my sister why she was interested in the status of the drainage system around Singapore and she said “Oh, I’m not”. WeatherLah advertises that Singapore is known to flood sometimes and the app will alert you to this in advance – so I would assume this is proven to be useful data for citizens.

    Data, data, data

    Singapore has bold aspirations when it comes to using technology and data to really make the state work for its citizens. Just this week they have announced their new ‘open data portal’ – data.gov.sg (it’s not dissimilar to the work the Office of National Statistics have been doing around access to and visualisation of data). The Singapore open data portal appears to be targeting developers as a primary consumer of the data and their blog uses the strap line “Understanding Singapore by exploring and visualising open data”. Again there is a focus on the idea of ‘Singapore as a system’ – I think it’s going to be really interesting and I’m certainly going to be watching with keen interest to see where it goes over the next couple of years.